The types and causes of soil erosion

Severe soil erosion in Devon causes 5ft gullies on field without enough crops

They also should be prepared to discuss the descriptions in class. Insecticides, pesticides and ripening chemicals that are used on plants run into the ground water system or nearby streams.

Soil erosion by rain occurs when more rain falls than the soil can absorb, either by exceeding the infiltration capacity or the storage capacity of the soil.

Every year thousand square miles of forest are lost to deforestation, which is equal to an astounding 48 football fields of forest disappearing every minute. Next, slides are shown of a road blocked with large stones where the wadi crosses the road without a bridge.

Saltation - The major fraction of soil moved by the wind is through the process of saltation. Context Middle-school students should be able to explain how soil is formed by the breakdown of a variety of organic and inorganic materials, sediments of sand, and smaller particles sometimes containing the remains of organisms.

During the 17th and 18th centuries, Easter Island experienced severe erosion due to deforestation and unsustainable agricultural practices. In such situations, rainfall amount rather than intensity is the main factor determining the severity of soil erosion by water.

Click on a title in blue to start a slideshow. For sound economic reasons until farmers did not think runoff and soil erosion were factors they needed to take into account because they were so little affected Table 2 by them Evans, Economic costs of soil erosion The following questions can be asked related to the economic effects of soil erosion: How high are the economic costs of soil erosion around the world today?

Hence, the erosional impacts of managing the land have not been apparent to the land manager.

Soil erosion

Gradually, deeper layers of soil than the humus-rich, natural topsoil, that was originally present, are incorporated in the plough layer by continued farming on sloping fields.

Pimentel and Burgess This is an irreversible process, that cannot be made good with fertilizers. On cultivated land the soil is exposed to rain and wind during part of the year and can easily be washed or blown away.

But ethanol was a product in search of a market, so ADM spent three decades relentlessly lobbying for ethanol to be used in gasoline.

Soil Erosion

Industrial farming methods are likely to crash our civilization in years or less. It is the nature of scientists, when confronted with a problem that is not solved with existing knowledge, to say that more research is needed.

Students should use this site to locate recent landslide activity. There are hardly publications available that give a precise answer to this question or an estimate or indication or allow a calculation of the costs involved in preventive action, such as the application of soil erosion control measures by individual farmers.

Details of rill erosion of the picture above, South-Limbourg photo F. The security of rights can be influential in this respect. It should be noted that there is considerable ambiguity in quantification of off-site costs, and especially in how to quantify the impact of agriculture on soil and other natural resources air and water.

I also believe that most program participants are involved in conservation programs because they perceive program participation as profitable. Moreover, in terms of the breakdown of total erosion costs, offsite costs are higher than onsite costs.

Wind Erosion

It increases the permeability of the soil to rainwater, thus decreasing runoff. Damage to houses is also very important, affecting gardens, garages or even the ground floor of the houses.The term wind erosion refers to the damage to land as a result of wind removing soil from an area.

Read about some examples of wind erosion here. Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil, one form of soil natural process is caused by the dynamic activity of erosive agents, that is, water, ice (glaciers), snow, air (wind), plants, animals, and humans.

What is wind erosion?

Deforestation and Climate Change

What are the causes and effects, and how can it be prevented? In addition to the usual types of land degradation that have been known for centuries (water, wind and mechanical erosion, physical, chemical and biological degradation), four other types have emerged in the last 50 years.

pollution, often chemical, due to agricultural, industrial, mining or commercial activities;; loss of arable land due to urban construction, road building, land conversion.

Page 1 of 4 Chapter 3 Erosion and Deposition Changing Earth's Surface Erosion is the process by which natural forces move weathered rock and soil from one place to another. Gravity, running water, glaciers, waves, and wind all cause erosion.

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The types and causes of soil erosion
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